Solar System Introduction

  • A system which produces useful output energy from Solar light or heat.
  • Technology which converts Solar light as a source is called Solar Photo-voltaic (Solar PV system.
  • Which converts Solar heat into electricity or hot/cold water is called Solar thermal.

     Solar Pv System: Types

  1.  OFF-Grid System
  2. Grid-Tied System (On Grid)
  3. Hybrid System

OFF-Grid System


Grid-Tied System

***ON-Grid Solar System

  • Small Scale (up to 10kW)
  • Medium Scale (10-500kW)
  • Large Scale (more than 500kW)


Hybrid System

  • Any other power source can be made hybrid with solar PV System

  • Combination with wind, grid, generator or even batteries.

Basic Terms About Solar

Conversion efficiency of a PV Cell

Proportion of sunlight energy that the cell converts into electricity (in %)

  • Today’s Solar Cell efficiency 7 – 17 % (depending on cell type)

Module Peak Power

Wp (Watt peak) or kWp (Kilowatt peak)

  • Measure for the peak output of a PV System under Standard Test Conditions
  • Standard Test Conditions (STC): Solar irradiation of 1000 W/m² , Air mass (AM) 1.5, module temperature 25º C 

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